Polymorphisms of Dopamine Receptor Genes and Parkinson’s Disease: Clinical Relevance and Future Perspectives


Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain. PD is clinically characterized by a variety of motor and nonmotor symptoms, and treatment relies on dopaminergic replacement. Beyond a common pathological hallmark, PD patients may present differences in both clinical progression and response to drug therapy that are partly affected by genetic factors. Despite extensive knowledge on genetic variability of dopaminergic receptors (DR), few studies have addressed their relevance as possible influencers of clinical heterogeneity in PD patients.

The study

In this review, we summarized available evidence regarding the role of genetic polymorphisms in DR as possible determinants of PD development, progression and treatment response. Moreover, we examined the role of DR in the modulation of peripheral immunity, in light of the emerging role of the peripheral immune system in PD pathophysiology. A better understanding of all these aspects represents an important step towards the development of precise and personalized disease-modifying therapies for PD.


Magistrelli L, Ferrari M, Furgiuele A, Milner AV, Contaldi E, Comi C, Cosentino M, Marino F - Polymorphisms of Dopamine Receptor Genes and Parkinson's Disease: Clinical Relevance and Future Perspectives - Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Apr 6;22(7):3781. doi: 10.3390/ijms22073781. PMID: 33917417; PMCID: PMC8038729.

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