Vitamin D as a Biomarker of Ill Health among the Over-50s: A Systematic Review of Cohort Studies

The association between circulating levels of vitamin D and the incidence of chronic diseases is known. The identification of vitamin D as a biomarker of physiological/pathological aging could contribute to expanding current knowledge of its involvement in healthy aging. According to PRISMA guidelines, a systematic review was conducted on cohorts studying the role of 25OH-Vitamin D [25(OH)D] and 1,25(OH)2-Vitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] concentrations as biomarkers of healthy aging. We consulted MedLine, Scopus, and Web of Science to search for studies on the association between vitamin D status in populations of originally healthy adults, and outcomes of longevity, illness, and physical and cognitive functionality. The quality of the studies was assessed using the Newcastle Ottawa scale. Twenty cohorts from 24 articles were selected for this review. Inverse associations were found between low 25(OH)D levels and all-cause mortality, respiratory and cardiovascular events, as well as markers relating to hip and non-vertebral fractures. Associations between 1,25(OH)2D and healthy aging outcomes gave similar results, although of lower clinical significance. This systematic review pinpoints peculiar aspects of vitamin D as a multidimensional predictor of ill health in the aging process. Further well-designed controlled trials to investigate whether vitamin D supplement results in superior outcomes are warranted in the future.

Reference:

Caristia S, Filigheddu N, Barone-Adesi F, Sarro A, Testa T, Magnani C, Aimaretti G, Faggiano F, Marzullo P. Vitamin D as a Biomarker of Ill Health among the Over-50s: A Systematic Review of Cohort Studies. Nutrients. 2019 Oct6;11(10). pii: E2384. doi: 10.3390/nu11102384. Review.